top of page

The Expectation and Learning Impact Framework (ELIF)

Research Questions

What kinds of PDEs related to DEI do academic librarians attended?

What factors account for librarians' perceptions of PDEs as impactful?

What recommendations do academic librarians have for improving PDEs?

Research Methods

This study used a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. Hermeneutic phenomenology focuses on discerning the meaning of human experiences from individuals' own narratives. The research was designed to be a posteriori, that is, there was no predetermined theoretical framework and preformulated hypotheses. Instead, the researchers allowed conclusions to emerge from empirically collected data and only then looked for a fit with existing theories. In alignment with the phenomenological approach, the qualitative survey was chosen as a research method. Participants were asked to retrospectively reflect on one PDE (hence, a critical incident approach) that took place at least a year ago and made a lasting impact on their practices and attitudes.


Aspects of Learning Reflected in Responses
to Open-Ended Questions

Table - Aspects of Learning Reflected in Responses.

The Expectation and Learning Impact Framework

The Expectation and Learning Impact Framework


Participants expect to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and increase awareness of DEI issues from DEI PDEs.

Participants find cognitive learning to create a memorable and impactful event, followed by social learning and affective learning.

While about a quarter of participants expect to learn and actually learn actionable skills, few found it to be impactful. Action items currently in DEI PDEs may not bring about lasting or sustainable change and should be investigated further.

Socialization is a memorable outcome that allows participants to be in the moment.

DEI PDEs must engage participants' whole being by combining cognitive, behavioral, and emotional learning opportunities.

The checklist of recommendations can be seen on the
Improving DEI PDEs Handout.

A list of training exercises can be seen on the
Exercises for DEI Training Handout.

The responses from the survey were mapped to the Expectation and Learning Impact Framework, which can be seen on the ELIF Handout.

bottom of page